Substantive edits

Here, as editors, we look at a document's purpose, content, and organization to ensure it conveys the information it was intended to in a clear and intelligible manner. Substantive edits often require moving blocks of text throughout a document, restructuring paragraphs and sentences, and often considerable rewording

When you receive a file back from us that has been extensively edited, with half or more of the content on any one page covered in red ink, well, the chances are good that your work has required a substantive edit. If you have enough time, we urge you to take advantage of our free proofreading service

Copy edits

Here we concern ourselves more with grammar, spelling, punctuation, format, and factual consistency checking (such as identifying possible contradictions in text or numerical values)

When you receive a file back from us with a third or less of the content on any page covered in red ink, the chances are that it has required a light- to copy edit. If you have enough time, we recommend that you take advantage of our free proofreading service

Proof reading

If your text is well structured (with good section, paragraph and sentence construction and flow), and it has been copy edited, then what you probably need is a proofread. If, however, reorganization of the text is required, if paragraphs or sentences still need rewording, then your text probably requires an edit (substantive to copy)

When we proofread your document we examine it carefully for typographical errors and mistakes in grammar, style, and spelling. The editing level required is typically very light (this is not to say that the task of proofreading is simple)

There should be very few changes required on any page if your file requires a proofread only. You are welcome to take advantage of our free proofreading service, but the chances are that you will not need it